The Cystoscope—The Instrument that Made Urology
When I began my work as curator in 1993, I was fascinated by the variety of cystoscopes in our holdings. Here was the instrument that truly made urology what it is, the instrument that set us apart from all other specialties, the instrument that gave rise to numerous other endoscopes and opened the way for the future advancement of all medicine.
Little did I know at that time of the fascinating history of this instrument, beginning with the ingenious vision and design of the Lichtleiter by Philipp Bozzini in 1806. This instrument stimulated many others to investigate the possibility of looking into the cavities of the living human body. Over the next decades, people such as Desormeaux in Paris, Cruise in Dublin and Fisher in Boston tried to create a usable instrument. Among the best of them is a little known instrument: American Philip Wales had Kern in Philadelphia create an instrument that used a perforated mirror to reflect light and allow