Fréré Jacques Beaulieu
1651 - 1719
Fréré Jacques Beaulieu was born in 1651 to a peasant family and learned the practice of lithotomy by apprenticeship. He was never formally ordained, yet donned a monk habit and called himself "Fréré Jacques." He was the first person to use the lateral approach to perineal lithotomy and openly shared his surgical technique. His lithotomy procedure was observed by the high court in Paris on three separate occasions between 1697 and 1704. Unfortunately, his patients had significant morbidity and mortality, and he was denied operating privileges. He performed approximately 5,000 lithotomies in 30 years and died in 1719 at age 68.