1792 - 1867
Jean Civiale, a surgeon in Paris, worked much of his life to treat bladder calculi. In 1818, he designed an instrument with a flexible sac attached that was designed to trap the stone that could be passed into the bladder. With the stone safely captured within the sac, he then injected chemicals into the sac to dissolve the stone. He quickly realized that stones would not respond to such treatment, particularly not to a single type of dissolving fluid.
He developed an instrument that he hoped would allow him to obtain pieces of stone for chemical analysis. This instrument consisted of a sheath through which prongs could be inserted into the bladder and grasp the stone. Between these prongs was a hidden drill that could drill out a small portion of the stone to be removed for analysis.
At the same time, others were busy developing instruments to treat