the United States as well, but it did not survive the test of time, as it was difficult to use and even more difficult to repair. Civiale made a generous donation to the Hospital Necker for an allotment of beds and thus founded the world-famous urological clinic at this hospital. A deplorable lecturer, he made up for this lack of skill by his famous books. His long history of successful bladder stone operations was marred only by his failure to crush the stone of King Leopold.
Civiale revolutionized the approach to bladder stones. His instrument, however, was soon superseded by Heurteloup's percussion lithotrite, which paved the way for later crushing lithotrites.