changed his name to Moses Swick. It is speculated that he underwent the name change to avoid being considered part of these quotas. He received his medical degree from Columbia Medical School in 1924, and continued post-graduate education in Germany at Hamburg University. Dr. Swick's early work in Germany would eventually pave the way for uroradiologic techniques such as intravenous pyelography.

Contrast imaging of the genitourinary tract was, at the time, in the earliest of stages. Based on intravenous instillation of sodium iodide, X-rays taken of the urinary system produced distinct but faint images. At the same time, urologists were treating urinary tract infections with iodated compounds. Professors Arthur Binz and Leopold Lichtwitz, both in Berlin were synthesizing compounds, such as Selectan-Neutral, to treat infections. It was during these studies that Dr. Swick recognized the value of the iodated compounds for imaging the urinary tract.

Swick worked to modify the structure of the compound, which at the

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