Samuels increased the proportion of patients who experienced response and remission.
An important breakthrough came in 1965 when Barnett Rosenberg, a Michigan State University chemist, discovered that platinum analogues inhibited bacterial growth. Out of this research grew cisplatin, a compound that would prove to have anti-tumor effects. Today, cisplatin is an essential ingredient in many of today's chemotherapeutic regimens, including testicular and bladder cancer. It places itself between DNA strands in such a way that rapidly dividing abnormal cells cannot replicate, producing cell death and tumor shrinkage. If shrinkage is great enough, then complete tumor disappearance is possible.
Clinical trials of cisplatin began in the early 1970s, led by Roswell Park's D.J. Higby and H.J. Wallace, who observed responses in testicular cancer. Memorial Sloan-Kettering's Robert B. Golbey and Indiana University's Lawrence H. Einhorn confirmed the drug's potency against testicular cancer. The biggest breakthrough came when Einhorn and John P. Donohue reported in 1977 that the combination of cisplatin, vinblastine and bleomycin together with surgery after chemotherapy could achieve complete remissions in up to 85 percent of patients.