Maximilian Nitze would introduce the first direct-vision scopes to view living patient urethras, bladders and larynxes. Premiering his first "kystoskop" on October 2, 1877, Nitze utilized an incandescent platinum wire loop to illuminate the bladder from inside, and a system of lenses to magnify its image for the viewer outside.
But turning ideas into scopes required many collaborations. Nitze relied on Austrian manufacturer Joseph Leiter, while American physicians called on German immigrant Reinhold Wappler—known by the early 1900s as a superb endoscopic innovator. Though the concept behind them was popular, endoscopic devices gained widespread appeal only after the development of the incandescent lamp by Thomas A. Edison in 1880. Once Edison's bulb was miniaturized into a low-amperage mignon bulb by manufacturers in the United States, instrument makers around the world could produce simple, inexpensive and easily manageable cystoscopes, illuminated with bright, burn-sparing light.